Saturday, October 01, 2005

Frank Borman 1928-

A hero of the American Space Odyssey, Frank Borman led the first team of American astronauts to circle the moon, extending man's horizons into space. He is internationally known as Commander of the 1968 Apollo 8 Mission. A romance with airplanes that began when he was 15 years old, took Frank Borman to the Air Force and then to NASA.
A career Air Force officer from 1950, his assignments included service as a fighter pilot, an operational pilot and instructor, an experimental test pilot and an assistant professor of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics at West Point. When selected by NASA, Frank Borman was instructor at the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards AFB, California.
In 1967 he served as a member of the Apollo 204 Fire Investigation Board, investigating the causes of the fire which killed three astronauts aboard an Apollo spacecraft, reminiscent of the Challenger tragedy. Later he became the Apollo Program Resident Manager, heading the team that re-engineered the Apollo spacecraft. He also served as Field Director of NASA's Space Station Task Force.
Frank Borman retired from the air Force in 1970, but is well remembered as a part of this nation's history, a pioneer in the exploration of space and a veteran of both the Gemini 7, 1965 Space Orbital Rendezvous with Gemini 6 and the first manned lunar orbital mission, Apollo 8, in 1968.
Borman's retirement from the Air Force in 1970 did not end his aviation career. He became a special advisor to Eastern Airlines in early 1969 and in December 1970 was named Sr. Vice President-Operations Group.
He was promoted to Executive Vice President-Genera Operations Manager and was elected to Eastern's Board of Directors in July 1974. In May 1975 he was elected President and Chief Operating Officer. He was named Chief Executive Officer in December 1975 and became Chairman of the Board in December 1976.
During his tenure as Chief Executive Officer of Eastern, the airline industry went through an enormous change caused by deregulation. During this period Eastern originated several unique programs including profit sharing and wages tied to company profitability. These programs produced the four most profitable years in the company's history. A recalcitrant union forced their abandonment in 1983 and the resulting loses led to the sale of the airline to Texas Air Corporation. Colonel Borman retired from Eastern Airlines in June of 1986.
Colonel Borman was privileged to serve as Special Presidential Ambassador on trips throughout the Far East and Europe, including a worldwide tour to seek support for the release of American Prisoners of war held by North Vietnam.
He received the Congressional Space Medal of Honor from the President of the United States. Colonel Borman also was awarded the Harmon International Aviation Trophy, the Robert J. Collier Trophy, the Tony Jannus Award and the National Geographic Society's Hubbard Medal--in addition to many honorary degrees, special honors and service decorations. More recently, in September of 1990, Colonel Borman along with fellow Apollo 8 astronauts, Lovell and Anders, was inducted into the International Aerospace Hall of Fame. And in October of 1990 received the Airport Operators Council International Downes Award. In March 1993, he was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame.
Frank Borman was born in Gary, Indiana, and was raised in Tucson, Arizona. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree from the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, in 1950 and a Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1957. He completed the Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program in 1970.

Alfred Merrill Worden 1932-

PERSONAL DATA: The son of Merrill and Helen Worden, he was born in Jackson, Michigan, on February 7, 1932. Married to Jill Lee Worden (Hotchkiss). Three children. Recreational interests include bowling, water skiing, golf and racquet ball.
EDUCATION: Attended Dibble, Griswold, Bloomfield and East Jackson grade schools and completed his secondary education at Jackson High School: Received a bachelor of military science degree from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1955 and master of science degrees in Astronautical/Aeronautical Engineering and Instrumentation Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1963. Received honorary doctorate of science in Astronautical Engineering from University of Michigan in 1971.
EXPERIENCE: Worden was graduated from the United States Military Academy in June 1955 and, after being commissioned in the Air Force, received flight training at Moore Air Base, Texas; Laredo air Force Base, Texas; and Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida.Prior to his arrival for duty at the Johnson Space Center, he served as an instructor at the Aerospace Research Pilots School-- from which he graduated in September 1965. He is also a February 1965 graduate of the Empire Test Pilots School in Farnborough, England.He attended Randolph Air Force Base Instrument Pilots Instructor School in 1963 and served as a pilot and armament officer from March 1957 to May 1961 with the 95th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland.He has logged more than 4,000 hours flying time--which includes 2,500 hours in jets.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Worden was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He served as a member of the astronaut support crew for the Apollo 9 flight and as backup command module pilot for the Apollo 12 flight.Worden served as command module pilot for Apollo 15, July 26 - August 7, 1971. His companions on the flight were David R. Scott, spacecraft commander, and James B. Irwin, lunar module commander. Apollo 15 was the fourth manned lunar landing mission and the first to visit and explore the moon's Hadley Rille and Apennene Mountains which are located on the southeast edge of the Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains). Apollo 15 achievements include: Largest payloads placed in earth and lunar orbits; first scientific instrument module bay flown and operated on an Apollo spacecraft; longest lunar surface stay time (the lunar module, "Falcon," remained on ground for 66 hours and 54 minutes); longest lunar surface EVA (Scott and Irwin logged 18 hours and 35 minutes each during three excursions onto the lunar surface); longest distance traversed on lunar surface; first use of lunar roving vehicle; first use of a lunar surface navigation device (mounted on Rover-1); first subsatellite launched in lunar orbit; and first EVA from a command module during transearth coast.Scott and Irwin collected approximately 171 pounds of lunar surface materials on their three expeditions onto the lunar surface; and Worden logged 38 minutes in extravehicular activity outside the command module, "Endeavour." In completing his three excursions to "Endeavour's" scientific instrument module bay, Worden retrieved film cassettes from the panoramic and mapping cameras and reported his personal observations of the general condition of equipment housed there. Apollo 15 concluded with a Pacific splashdown and subsequent recovery by the USS OKINAWA. In completing his space flight, Worden logged 295 hours and 11 minutes in space.During 1972-1973, Worden was Senior Aerospace Scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center, and from 1973 to 1975, he was chief of the Systems Study Division at Ames.

Edgar Dean Mitchell 1930-2016

PERSONAL DATA: Born September 17, 1930, in Hereford, Texas, but considers Artesia, New Mexico, his hometown. Married to the former Anita K. Rettig of Medina, Ohio. Two daughters. He enjoys handball and swimming, and his hobbies are scuba diving and soaring.
EDUCATION: Attended primary schools in Roswell, New Mexico, and is a graduate of Artesia High School in Artesia, New Mexico; received a Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Management from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1952, a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1961, and a Doctorate of Science degree in Aeronautics/Astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964; presented an Honorary Doctorate of Science from New Mexico State University in 1971, and an Honorary Doctorate of Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1971.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; Sigma Xi; and Sigma Gamma Tau, New York Academy of Sciences.
SPECIAL HONORS: Presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1970), the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the MSC Superior Achievement Award (1970), the Navy Astronaut Wings, the navy Distinguished Service medal, the City of New York Gold Medal (1971), and the Arnold Air Society’s John F. Kennedy Award (1971).
EXPERIENCE: Captain Mitchell’s experience includes Navy operational flight, test flight, engineering, engineering management, and experience as a college instructor. Mitchell came to the Manned Spacecraft Center after graduating first in his class from the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School where he was both student and instructor.He entered the Navy in 1952 and completed his basic training at the San Diego Recruit Depot. In May 1953, after completing instruction at the Officers’ Candidate School at Newport, Rhode Island, he was commissioned as an Ensign. He completed flight training in July 1954 at Hutchinson, Kansas, and subsequently was assigned to Patrol Squadron 29 deployed to Okinawa.From 1957 to 1958, he flew A3 aircraft while assigned to Heavy Attack Squadron Two deployed aboard the USS BON HOMME RICHARD and USS TICONGEROGA; and he was a research project pilot with Air Development Squadron Five until 1959. His assignment from 1964 to 1965 was as Chief, Project Management Division of the Navy Field Office for Manned Orbiting Laboratory.He accumulated 4,000 hours flight time--1,900 hours in jets.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Mitchell was in a group selected for astronaut training in April 1966. He served as a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 9 and as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 10.He completed his first space flight as lunar module pilot on Apollo 14, January 31 - February 9, 1971. With him on man’s third lunar landing mission were Alan B. Shepard, spacecraft commander, and Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot.Maneuvering their lunar module, “Antares,” to a landing in the hilly upland Fra Mauro region of the moon, Shepard and Mitchell subsequently deployed and activated various scientific equipment and experiments and collected almost 100 pounds of lunar samples for return to Earth. Other Apollo 14 achievements include: first use of Mobile Equipment Transporter (MET); largest payload placed in lunar orbit; longest distance traversed on the lunar surface; largest payload returned from the lunar surface; longest lunar surface stay time (33 hours); longest lunar surface EVA (9 hours and 17 minutes); first use of shortened lunar orbit rendezvous techniques; first use of color TV with new vidicon tube on lunar surface; and first extensive orbital science period conducted during CSM solo operations.In completing his first space flight, Mitchell logged a total of 216 hours and 42 minutes in space.He was subsequently designated to serve as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 16.

Russell L. (Rusty) Schweickart 1935-

Russell L. (Rusty) Schweickart is a retired business and government executive and serves today as Chairman of the Board of the B612 Foundation. The organization, a non-profit private foundation, champions the development and testing of a spaceflight concept to protect the Earth from future asteroid impacts.
Schweickart retired from ALOHA Networks, Inc. in 1998 where he served as President and CEO from 1996 through 1998. ALOHA was a data communications company specializing in high performance, wireless internet access equipment.
Schweickart was formerly the Executive Vice President of CTA Commercial Systems, Inc. and Director of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Systems. Schweickart led CTA’s efforts in developing the GEMnet system, a second generation LEO communication satellite constellation designed to provide regular commercial electronic messaging services on a global basis. Prior to his CTA work Schweickart founded and was president of Courier Satellite Services, Inc., a global satellite communications company which developed LEO satellites to provide worldwide affordable data services
Schweickart's satellite and telecommunications work involved him in the development of international communications regulations and policies, including participation in the 1992 and 1995 World Radiocommunications Conferences (WRC) of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). He served at the 1995 WRC as a U.S. delegate. He also worked extensively in Russia and the former Soviet Union on scientific and telecommunications matters.
Schweickart is the founder and past president of the Association of Space Explorers (ASE), the international professional society of astronauts and cosmonauts. The organization promotes the cooperative exploration and development of space and the use of space technology for human benefit. The ASE has a current membership of over 300 astronauts and cosmonauts from 29 nations. The Association's first book, The Home Planet, with a preface by Schweickart, was published simultaneously in 10 nations in the Fall of 1988 and was an immediate international best seller.
In 1987-88, Schweickart chaired the United States Antarctic Program Safety Review Panel for the Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in Washington, DC. The resulting report, Safety in Antarctica, a comprehensive on-site review of all U.S. activities in Antarctica, led to a restructuring of the program, increasing the safety of operations in that hazardous environment. At the request of the National Science Foundation, Schweickart also served on the 1997-1998 United States Antarctic Program Outside Review Panel, which reported to the Whitehouse (OSTP) and Congress on the future of US facilities in Antarctica. The US’ Amundson-Scott South Pole station has recently been fully rebuilt as a result of this work.
In 1977 Schweickart joined the staff of Governor Jerry Brown of California, and served in the Governor's office for two years as his assistant for science and technology. In 1979 Schweickart was appointed to the post of Commissioner of Energy for the State of California and served on the Commission for five and a half years. The Commission, which was chaired by Schweickart for three and a half years, was responsible for all aspects of energy regulation in the state other than rate setting, including energy demand forecasting, alternative energy development, powerplant siting and energy performance regulation for appliances and buildings.
Schweickart joined NASA as one of 14 astronauts named in October 1963, the third group of astronauts selected. He served as lunar module pilot for Apollo 9, March 3-13, 1969, logging 241 hours in space. This was the third manned flight of the Apollo series and the first manned flight of the lunar module. During a 46 minute EVA Schweickart tested the portable life support backpack which was subsequently used on the lunar surface explorations. On the mission with Schweickart were commander James A. McDivitt and command module pilot David R. Scott.
Schweickart served as backup commander for the first Skylab mission which flew in the Spring of 1973. Following the loss of the thermal shield during the launch of the Skylab vehicle, he assumed responsibility for the development of hardware and procedures associated with erecting the emergency solar shade and deployment of the jammed solar array wing, operations which transformed Skylab from an imminent disaster to a highly successful program.
After the Skylab program, Schweickart went to NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC as Director of User Affairs in the Office of Applications. In this position he was responsible for transferring NASA technology to the outside world and working with technology users to bring an understanding of their needs into NASA.
Prior to joining NASA, Schweickart was a research scientist at the Experimental Astronomy Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His work at MIT involved research in upper atmospheric physics, star tracking and the stabilization of stellar images. His thesis for a master's degree at MIT was an experimental validation of theoretical models of stratospheric radiance.
Schweickart served as a fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force and the Massachusetts Air National Guard from 1956 to 1963. He has logged over 4000 hours of flight time, including 3500 hours in high performance jet aircraft.
Schweickart was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1969) and the Federation Aeronautique Internationale De La Vaux Medal (1970) for his Apollo 9 flight. He also received the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Special Trustees Award (Emmy) in 1969 for transmitting the first live TV pictures from space. In 1973 Schweickart was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal for his leadership role in the Skylab rescue efforts.
He is a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society and the International Academy of Astronautics, and an Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Schweickart is an Honorary Trustee and a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences.
Schweickart was born on 25 October 1935 in Neptune, NJ. He graduated from Manasquan High School, NJ; received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1956 and his Master of Science degree in 1963, both from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Richard F. Gordon, Jr 1929-

PERSONAL DATA: Born October 5, 1929, in Seattle, Washington. Married to the former Barbara J. Field of Seattle, Washington. Two daughters and four sons (one deceased). He enjoys water skiing and golf.
EDUCATION: Graduated from North Kitsap High School, Poulsbo, Washington; received a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry from the University of Washington in 1951.
ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Astronautical Society; Associate Fellow, Society of Experimental Test Pilots; and Navy League.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, NASA Exceptional Service Medal, two Navy Distinguished Flying Crosses, Navy Astronaut Wings, the Navy distinguished Service Medal, Institute of Navigation Award for 1969, Godfrey L. Cabot Award in 1970, the Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award for Scientific and Technical Progress, 1970; Phi Sigma Kappa Merit Award, 1966; NASA MSC Superior Achievement Award; NASA Group Achievement Award; FAI Record.1961 (Transcontinental Speed Record); and FAI World Record (Altitude Record, Gemini XI).
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES: Gordon has served as Chairman and co-Chairman of the Louisiana Heart Fund, Chairman of the March of Dimes (Mother's March), Honorary Chairman for Muscular Dystrophy, and Board of Directors for the Boy Scouts of America and Boys' Club of Greater New Orleans.
TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gordon, R. F., F4H-1 NAVY PRELIMINARY EVALUATION, Phase I, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, September 1958.Gordon, R. F., F4H-1 NAVY PRELIMINARY EVALUATION, Phase I Supplement, October 1958Gordon, R. F., FJ-4B FUEL CONSUMPTION AND PERFORMANCE REPORT, Flight Test, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, 1958.Gordon, R. F., F11F FUEL CONSUMPTION AND PERFORMANCE REPORT, Flight Test, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, 1958.Gordon, R. F., REVISED ROLL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR MIL-SPEC-F-8785. All Aircraft in Configuration PA, Flight Test, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, 1958.Gordon, R. F., F8U SPIN EVALUATION REPORT, Flight Test, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, 1959.Gordon, R. F., GEMINI XI, GEMINI PROGRAM MISSION REPORT, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Report, October 1966.Gordon, R. F., APOLLO XII MISSION REPORT, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Report, December 1969.
EXPERIENCE: Gordon, a Navy Captain, received his wings as a naval aviator in 1953. He then attended All-Weather Flight School and jet transitional training and was subsequently assigned to an all-weather fighter squadron at the Naval Air Station at Jacksonville, Florida.In 1957, he attended the Navy's Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland, and served as a flight test pilot until 1960. During this tour of duty, he did flight test work on the F8U Crusader, F11F Tigercat, FJ Fury, and A4D Skyhawk, and was the first project test pilot for the F4H Phantom II. He served with Fighter Squadron 121 at the Miramar, California, Naval Air Station as a flight instructor in the F4H and participated in the introduction of that aircraft to the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. He was also flight safety officer, assistant operations officer, and ground training officer for Fighter Squadron 96 at Miramar.Winner of the Bendix Trophy Race from Los Angeles to New York in May 1961, he established a new speed record of 869.74 miles per hour and a transcontinental speed record of 2 hours and 47 minutes.He was also a student at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California.He has logged more that 4,500 hours flying time--3,500 hours in jet aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Gordon was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963. He served as backup pilot for the Gemini 8 flight.On September 12, 1966, he served as pilot for the 3-day Gemini XI mission--on which rendezvous with an Agena was achieved in less than one orbit. He executed docking maneuvers with the previously launched Agena and performed two periods of extravehicular activity which included attaching a tether to the Agena and retrieving a nuclear emulsion experiment package. Other highlights accomplished by Gordon and command pilot Charles Conrad on this flight included the successful completion of the first tethered station-keeping exercise, establishment of a new altitude record of 850 miles, and completion of the first fully automatic controlled reentry. The flight was concluded on September 15, 1966, with the spacecraft landing in the Atlantic--2 1/2 miles from the prime recovery ship USS GUAM.Gordon was subsequently assigned as backup command pilot for Apollo 9.He occupied the command module pilot seat on Apollo 12, November 14-24, 1969. Other crewmen on man's second lunar landing mission were Charles Conrad, spacecraft commander, and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot. Throughout the 31-hour lunar surface stay by Conrad and Bean, Gordon remained in lunar orbit aboard the command module, "Yankee Clipper," obtaining desired mapping photographs of tentative landing sites for future missions. He also performed the final re-docking maneuvers following the successful lunar orbit rendezvous which was initiated by Conrad and Bean from within "Intrepid" after their ascent from the moon's surface.All of the mission's objectives were accomplished and Apollo 12 achievements include: The first precision lunar landing with "Intrepid's" touchdown in the moon's Ocean of Storms; the first lunar traverse by Conrad and Bean as they deployed the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP), installed a nuclear power generator station to provide the power source for these long-term scientific experiments, gathered samples of the lunar surface for return to earth, and completed a close up inspection of the Surveyor III spacecraft.The Apollo 12 mission lasted 244 hours and 36 minutes and was concluded with a Pacific spashdown and subsequent recovery operations by the USS HORNET.Captain Gordon has completed two space flights, logging a total of 315 hours and 53 minutes in space--2 hours and 44 minutes of which were spent in EVA.He served as backup spacecraft commander for Apollo 15.Captain Gordon retired from NASA and the USN in January 1972.

Charles Moss Duke, Jr 1935-

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Charlotte, North Carolina, on October 3, 1935. Married to the former Dorothy Meade Clairborne of Atlanta, Georgia. They have two grown sons. Recreational interests include hunting, fishing, reading, and playing golf.
EDUCATION: Attended Lancaster High School in Lancaster, South Carolina, and was graduated valedictorian from the Admiral Farragut Academy in St. Petersburg, Florida; received a bachelor of science degree in Naval Sciences from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1957 and a master of science degree in Aeronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964; presented an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the University of South Carolina in 1973, and an honorary doctorate of Humanities from Francis Marion College in 1990.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Air Force Association, the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Reserve Officer Association, Full Gospel Businessmen's Fellowship, Christian Businessmen's Committee; National Space Society.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the JSC Certificate of Commendation (1970), the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster and AF Legion of Merit, and Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings, the SETP Iven C. Kincheloe Award of 1972, the AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1972, the AIAA Haley Astronautics Award for 1973, and the Federation Aeronautique Internationale V.M. Komarov Diploma in 1973; named South Carolina Man of the Year in 1973 and inducted into the South Carolina Hall of Fame in 1973; and presented the Boy Scouts of America Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1975.
EXPERIENCE: When notified of his selection as an astronaut, Duke was at the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School as an instructor teaching control systems and flying in the F-101, F-104, and T-33 aircraft. He graduated from the Aerospace Research Pilot School in September 1965 and stayed on there as an instructor.He is a retired Air Force Reserve Brigadier General and was commissioned in 1957 upon graduation from the Naval Academy. Upon entering the Air Force, he went to Spence Air Base, Georgia, for primary flight training and then to Webb Air Force Base, Texas, for basic flying training, where in 1958 he became a distinguished graduate. He was again a distinguished graduate at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, where he completed advanced training in F-86L aircraft. Upon completion of this training, he served three years as a fighter interceptor pilot with the 526th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Ramstein Air Base, Germanypilot with the 526th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Ramstein Air Base, Germany.He has logged 4,147 hours flying time, which includes 3,632 hours in jet aircraft.Duke was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He served as member of the astronaut support crew for the Apollo 10 flight. He was CAPCOM for Apollo 11, the first landing on the Moon and he served as backup lunar module pilot on Apollo 13.Duke served as lunar module pilot of Apollo 16, April 16-27, 1972. He was accompanied on the fifth manned lunar landing mission by John W. Young (spacecraft commander) and Thomas K. Mattingly II (command module pilot). Apollo 16 was the first scientific expedition to inspect, survey, and sample materials and surface features in the Descartes region of the rugged lunar highlands. Duke and Young commenced their record setting lunar surface stay of 71 hours and 14 minutes by maneuvering the lunar module "Orion" to a landing on the rough Cayley Plains. In three subsequent excursions onto the lunar surface, they each logged 20 hours and 15 minutes in extravehicular activities involving the emplacement and activation of scientific equipment and experiments, the collection of nearly 213 pounds of rock and soil samples, and the evaluation and use of Rover-2 over the roughest and blockiest surface yet encountered on the moon.Other Apollo 16 achievements included the largest payload placed in lunar orbit (76, 109 pounds); first cosmic ray detector deployed on lunar surface; first lunar observatory with the far UV camera; and longest in-flight EVA from a command module during transearth coast (1 hour and 13 minutes). The latter feat was accomplished by Mattingly when he ventured out to "Casper's" SIM-bay for the retrieval of vital film cassettes from the panoramic and mapping cameras. Apollo 16 concluded with a Pacific Ocean splashdown and subsequent recovery by the USS TICONDEROGA.With the completion of his first space flight, Duke has logged 265 hours in space and over 21 hours of extra vehicular activity.Duke also served as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 17.

Thomas K. Mattingly II 1936-

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Chicago, Illinois, March 17, 1936. One grown son.
EDUCATION: Attended Florida elementary and secondary schools and is a graduate of Miami Edison High School, Miami, Florida; received a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Auburn University in 1958.
ORGANIZATIONS: Associate Fellow, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Fellow, American Astronautical Society; and Member, Society of Experimental Test Pilots, and the U.S. Naval Institute.
SPECIAL HONORS: Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal (1982); NASA Distinguished Service Medals (2); JSC Certificate of Commendation (1970); JSC Group Achievement Award (1972); Navy Distinguished Service Medal; Navy Astronaut Wings; SETP Ivan C. Kincheloe Award (1972); Delta Tau Delta Achievement Award (1972); Auburn Alumni Engineers Council Outstanding Achievement Award (1972); AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1972; AIAA Haley Astronautics Award for 1973; Federation Aeronautique Internationale's V. M. Komarov Diploma in 1973.
EXPERIENCE: Prior to reporting for duty at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, he was a student at the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School.Mattingly began his Naval career as an Ensign in 1958 and received his wings in 1960. He was then assigned to VA-35 and flew A1H aircraft aboard the USS SARATOGA from 1960 to 1963. In July 1963, he served in VAH-11 deployed aboard the USS FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT where he flew the A3B aircraft for two years.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Mattingly is one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966.He served as a member of the astronaut support crews for the Apollo 8 and 11 missions and was the astronaut representative in development and testing of the Apollo spacesuit and backpack (EMU).He was designated command module pilot for the Apollo 13 flight but was removed from flight status 72 hours prior to the scheduled launch due to exposure to the German measles.He has logged 7,200 hours of flight time -- 5,000 hours in jet aircraft.From January 1973 to March 1978, Mattingly worked as head of astronaut office support to the STS (Shuttle Transportation System) program. He was next assigned as technical assistant for flight test to the Manager of the Orbital Flight Test Program. From December 1979 to April 1981, he headed the astronaut office ascent/entry group. He subsequently served as backup commander for STS-2 and STS-3, Columbia's second and third orbital test flights. From June 1983 through May 1984, Mattingly served as Head of the Astronaut Office DOD Support Group.A veteran of three space flights, Mattingly has logged 504 hours in space, including 1 hour and 13 minutes of EVA (extravehicular activity) during his Apollo 16 flight. He was the command module pilot on Apollo 16 (April 16-27, 1972), was the spacecraft commander on STS-4 (June 26 to July 4, 1982) and STS 51-C (January 24-27, 1985).Captain Mattingly resigned from NASA in 1985.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Apollo 16 (April 16-27, 1972) was the fifth manned lunar landing mission. The crew included John W. Young (spacecraft commander), Ken Mattingly (command module pilot), and Charles M. Duke, Jr. (lunar module pilot). The mission assigned to Apollo 16 was to collect samples from the lunar highlands at a location near the crater Descartes. While in lunar orbit the scientific instruments aboard the command and service module "Casper" extended the photographic and geochemical mapping of a belt around the lunar equator. Twenty-six separate scientific experiments were conducted both in lunar orbit and during cislunar coast. Major emphasis was placed on using man as an orbital observer capitalizing on the human eye's unique capabilities and man's inherent curiosity. Although the mission of Apollo 16 was terminated one day early, due to concern over several spacecraft malfunctions, all major objectives were accomplished through the ceaseless efforts of the mission support team and were made possible by the most rigorous preflight planning yet associated with an Apollo mission.STS-4, the fourth and final orbital test flight of the Shuttle Columbia, launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on June 27,1982. Mattingly was the spacecraft commander and Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., was the pilot. This 7-day mission was designed to: further verify ascent and entry phases of shuttle missions; perform continued studies of the effects of long-term thermal extremes on the Orbiter subsystems; and conduct a survey of Orbiter-induced contamination on the Orbiter payload bay. Additionally, the crew operated several scientific experiments located in the Orbiter's cabin and in the payload bay. These experiments included the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System experiment designed to investigate the separation of biological materials in a fluid according to their surface electrical charge. This experiment was a pathfinder for the first commercial venture to capitalize on the unique characteristics of space. The crew is also credited with effecting an in-flight repair which enabled them to activate the first operational "Getaway Special" (composed of nine experiments that ranged from algae and duckweed growth in space to fruit fly and brine shrimp genetic studies). STS-4 completed 112 orbits of the Earth before landing on a concrete runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on July 4, 1982.STS-51C Discovery, the first Space Shuttle Department of Defense mission, launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on January 24, 1985. The crew included Ken Mattingly (spacecraft commander), Loren Shriver (pilot), Jim Buchli and Ellison Onizuka (mission specialists), and Gary Payton (DOD payload specialist). STS-51C performed its DOD mission which included deployment of a modified Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicle from the Space Shuttle Discovery. Landing occurred on January 27, 1985.

Alan L.Bean 1932-

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Wheeler, Texas, on March 15, 1932. Married. Two grown children, a son and a daughter.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Paschal High School in Fort Worth, Texas; received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the University of Texas in 1955; awarded an honorary doctorate of science from Texas Wesleyan College in 1972; presented an honorary doctorate of engineering science degree from the University of Akron (Ohio) in 1974.
ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society; member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.
SPECIAL HONORS: Helped establish 11 world records in space and astronautics; awarded two NASA distinguished Service Medals, the Navy Astronaut Wings and two Navy Distinguished Service Medals; recipient of the Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award for Scientific and Technical Progress, the University of Texas Distinguished Alumnus Award and Distinguished Engineering Graduate Award, the Godfrey L. Cabot Award, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Trustees Award, the Texas Press Association’s Man of the Year Award for 1969, the City of Chicago Gold Medal, the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1973, the Federation Aeronautique Internationale’s Yuri Gagarin Gold Medal for 1973 and the V.M. Komarov Diploma for 1973 (1974), the Dr. Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy for 1975 (1975), the AIAA Octave Chanute Award for 1975 (1975), the AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1974 (1975).
EXPERIENCE: Alan Bean, a Navy ROTC Student at Texas, was commissioned upon graduation in 1955. After completing flight training, he was assigned to a jet attack squadron in Jacksonville, Florida. After a four-year tour of duty, he attended the Navy Test Pilot School, then flew as a test pilot on several types of naval aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Alan Bean was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963. He served as backup astronaut for the Gemini 10 and Apollo 9 missions.Captain Bean was lunar module pilot on Apollo 12, man’s second lunar landing. In November 1969, Captain Bean and Captain Pete Conrad landed in the moon’s Ocean of Storms—after a flight of some 250,000 miles. They explored the lunar surface, deployed several lunar surface experiments, and installed the first nuclear power generator station on the moon to provide the power source. Captain Richard Gordon remained in lunar orbit photographing landing sites for future missions.Captain Bean was spacecraft commander of Skylab Mission II (SL-3), July 29 to September 25, 1973. With him on the 59-day, 24,400,000 mile world record setting flight were scientist-astronaut Dr. Owen K. Garriott and Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Jack R. Lousma. Mission II accomplished 150% of its pre-mission forecast goals.On his next assignment, Captain Bean was backup spacecraft commander of the United States flight crew for the joint American-Russian Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.Captain Bean has logged 1,671 hours and 45 minutes in space—of which 10 hours and 26 minutes were spent in EVAs on the moon and in earth orbit. Captain Bean has flown 27 types of military aircraft as well as many civilian airplanes. He has logged more than 7,145 hours flying time—including 4,890 hours in jet aircraft. Captain Bean retired from the Navy in October 1975 but continued as head of the Astronaut Candidate Operations and Training Group within the Astronaut Office in a civilian capacity.Bean resigned from NASA in June 1981 to devote his full time to painting. He said his decision was based on the fact that, in his 18 years as an astronaut, he was fortunate enough to visit worlds and see sights no artist’s eye, past or present, has ever viewed firsthand and he hopes to express these experiences through the medium of art. He is pursuing this dream at his home and studio in Houston.

Fred Wallace Haise, Jr 1933-

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Biloxi, Mississippi, on November 14, 1933. Married to the former F. Patt Price of Rogers, Texas. Four children.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Biloxi High School, Biloxi, Mississippi; attended Perkinston Junior College (Association of Arts); received a bachelor of science degree with honors in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Oklahoma in 1959, an honorary doctorate of science from Western Michigan University of 1970, and attended Harvard Business School, PMD Class 24 in 1972.
ORGANIZATION: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP); member, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Gamma Tau, and Phi Theta Kappa; and honorary member, National WWII Glider Pilots Association.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the Presidential Medal for Freedom (1970); the NASA Distinguished Service Medal; the AIAA Haley Astronautics Award for 1971; the American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Awards for 1970 and 1977; the City of New York Gold Medal in 1970; the City of Houston Medal for Valor in 1970; the Jeff Davis Award (1970); the Mississippi Distinguished Civilian Service Medal (1970); the American Defense Ribbon; the SETP's Ray E. Tenhoff Award for 1966; the A.B. Honts Trophy as the outstanding graduate of Class 64A from the Aerospace Research Pilot School in 1964; the NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1978); the JSC Special Achievement Award (1978); the Soaring Society of America's Certificate of Achievement Award (1978); the General Thomas D. White Space Trophy for 1977 (1978); the SETP's Iven C. Kincheloe Award (1978); the Air Force Association's David C. Schilling Award (1978).
EXPERIENCE: Haise was a research pilot at the NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, before coming to Houston and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; and from September 1959 to March 1963, he was a research pilot at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. During this time he authored the following papers which have been published: a NASA TND, entitled "An Evaluation of the Flying Qualities of 7 General-Aviation Aircraft"; NASA TND 3380, "Use of Aircraft for Zero Gravity Environment, May 1966"; SAE Business Aircraft Conference Paper, entitled "An Evaluation of General-Aviation Aircraft Flying Qualities, March 30-April 1, 1966"; and a paper delivered at the Tenth Symposium of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, entitled "A Quantitative/Qualitative Handling Qualities Evaluation of 7 General-Aviation Aircraft, 1966."He was the Aerospace Research Pilot School's outstanding graduate of Class 64A and served with the U.S. Air Force from October 1961 to August 1962 as a tactical fighter pilot and as chief of the 164th Standardization-Evaluation Flight of the 164th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Mansfield, Ohio. From March 1957 to September 1959, Haise was a fighter interceptor pilot with the 185th Fighter Interceptor Squadron in the Oklahoma Air National Guard.He also served as a tactics and all weather flight instructor in the U.S. Navy Advanced Training Command at NAAS Kingsville, Texas, and was assigned as a U. S. Marine Corps fighter pilot to VMF-533 and 114 at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina, from March 1954 to September 1956.His military career began in October 1952 as a Naval Aviation Cadet at the Naval Air Station in Pensacola, Florida.Haise has accumulated 9,300 hours flying time, including 6,200 hours in jets.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Mr. Haise was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He served as backup lunar module pilot for the Apollo 8 and 11 missions, and backup spacecraft commander for the Apollo 16 mission.Haise was the lunar module pilot on Apollo 13 (April 11-17, 1970) and has logged 142 hours and 54 minutes in space.From April 1973 to January 1976, he was technical assistant to the Manager of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Project. He was commander of one of the two 2-man crews who piloted space shuttle approach and landing test (ALT) flights during the period June through October 1977. This series of critical orbiter flight tests involved initially Boeing 747/orbiter captive-active flights, followed by air-launched, unpowered glide, approach, and landing tests (free flights). There were 3 captive mated tests with the orbiter "Enterprise" carried atop the Boeing 747 carrier aircraft, allowing inflight low-altitude and low-speed test and checkout of flight control systems and orbiter controls, and 5 free flights which permitted extensive evaluations of the orbiter's subsonic flying qualities and performance characteristics during separation, up and away flight, flare, landing, and rollout--providing valuable real-time data duplicating the last few minutes of an operational shuttle mission.Haise resigned from NASA in June 1979 to become Vice-President, Space Programs at Grumman Aerospace Corporation. Haise is currently President of Grumman Technical Services, Inc. located at Titusville, Florida, and Northrop Worldwide Aircraft Services at Lawton, Oklahoma.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Haise was lunar module pilot for Apollo 13, April 11-17, 1970. Apollo 13 was scheduled for a ten-day mission for the first landing in the hilly, upland Fra Mauro region of the moon. The original flight plan, however, was modified en route to the moon due to a failure of the service module cryogenic oxygen system which occurred at approximately 55 hours into the flight. Haise and fellow crewmen, James A. Lovell (spacecraft commander) and John L. Swigert (command module pilot), working closely with Houston ground controllers, converted their lunar module "Aquarius" into an effective lifeboat. Their emergency activation and operation of lunar module systems conserved both electrical power and water in sufficient supply to assure their safety and survival while in space and for the return to earth.